Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which insulin does not work adequately, causing an increase in the amount of sugar called glucose (blood sugar) flowing through the blood. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and is responsible for keeping blood sugar within a certain range.
With diabetes, insulin does not work well enough to get blood sugar into the cells, and the blood is flooded with sugar. This has two causes
Hyposmolar insulin secretion: a condition in which the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin due to a decrease in pancreatic function.
Insulin resistance: A condition in which sufficient amounts of insulin are produced but are ineffective. Obesity, caused by lack of exercise or overeating, makes it difficult for insulin to work.

Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus
1) Morning fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL or higher
2) 75g oral glucose tolerance test (2 hours) 200mg/dL or higher
HbA1c 6.5% or higher
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c is a value that indicates the state of blood glucose during the past 1 to 2 months.
Normal range fasting blood glucose is 80 mg/dl to 99 mg/dl, normal range postprandial blood glucose is generally considered to be 1 80 mg/dl to 139 mg/dl, and normal hemoglobin A1c is 5.9% or less.